Tuesday, June 10, 2008

Rulers of Europe during the Golden Age of Piracy



The height of the golden age of piracy ran from about 1650 - 1727* (depending on who you ask). The European powers shifted alliances and fought a lot during this period. The constant war making gave rise to privateers, and peace making made many privateers turn to piracy. This is a rough guide, as political history in Europe was quite complicated during this period (at least as far as this silly American is concerned). Here are some of the rulers of the Golden Age:

England/Great Britain
Charles I: 1625–1649 (House of Stuart)
Oliver Cromwell: 1653-1658 (Commonwealth)
Richard Cromwell: 1658-1659 (Commonwealth)
Charles II: 1660-1685 (House of Stuart)
James II: 1685-1688 (House of Stuart)
William III: 1689-1702 (House of Stuart)
Mary II: 1689-1694 (House of Stuart)
Anne: 1702-1714 (House of Stuart)
George I 1714-1727 (House of Hanover)

Spain
Philip IV: 1621-1665 (House of Habsburg)
Charles II: 1665-1770 (House of Habsburg)
Philip V: 1700-1746 (House of Bourbon)
Louis I: Ruled briefly in 1724 when his father, Philip V abdicated

France
Louis XIV: 1643-1715 (House of Bourbon)
Louis XV: 1715-1774 (House of Bourbon)

Portugal
John IV: 1640-1656
Afonso VI: 1656-1657
Peter II: 1667-1706
John V: 1706-1750

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
Jacob Cats: 1636-1651
Adriaan Pauw: 1651-1653
Johan de Witt: 1653-1672
Gaspar Fagel: 1672-1688
Michiel ten Hove: 1688-1689
Anthonie Heinsius: 1689-1720
Isaac van Hoornbeek: 1720-1727

Austria/Germany/Hungary/Holy Roman Empire
Ferdinand III: 1637-1657 (House of Habsburg)
Leopold I: 1657-1705 (House of Habsburg)
Joeseph I: 1705-1711 (House of Habsburg)
Charles VI: 1711-1740 (House of Habsburg)

Source: wikipedia

* According to wikipedia, the execution of William Fly "is used by historian Marcus Rediker to mark the end of the Golden Age of Pirates."

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